CELTA – Precourse – Section 5A, Tasks 45 and 46


Task 45: What is wrong with the following instructions, and how can they be made more effective?

  1. Jot that down – slang – ‘write that down’ is better.
  2. I wonder if you’d mind looking at question 4 and then if you could just answer it – too many words and unclear. ‘Please read question 4 and write/say the answer’
  3. I’d like you to read the text on page 4 and answer the first three, then compare your answers with the person next to you. After that write a short summary of the story and discuss with your partner. Too many instructions at once. Students will forget or be confused and ask you multiple times. Give the instructions one at a time. 
  4. Look at the question at the bottom of the page and think about an answer. Why should they think – is it to then later answer a question, or does the teacher actually mean answer the question now. 

Task 46: How would you respond to the comments below:

  1. I don’t want to work in a group because I will only learn mistakes from other students – it’s good to learn from our mistakes, and you and the other students will benefit from correcting each other and practicing your speaking. 
  2. I wish you could translate more words to my language – in real life we may not have access to a particular vocabulary word, and it is good to get used to describing that word using vocabulary already learnt. 
  3. Please don’t ask me to work with that student. I don’t like people from her country – explain that racism is stupid?
  4. Could we just talk in class and not use any books? –  Explain that learning all the major skills, receptive and productive, are important and that some learners in the classroom might learn better using the books. 



CELTA – Precourse – Section 4 A + B, Tasks 43 and 44


Task 43: Match the lesson plan extracts with the parts. 

a. I’d like to smile more and create a better rapport today – Personal aim

b. Students to Students in pairs – Interaction pattern

c. By the end of the lesson students will be able to use a range of adjectives to describe someone’s personality – Lesson aims/learning outcomes

d. Teacher hands out text and gives a different set of questions to each group – Procedure

e. Some students may find the pronunciation of several words quite difficult. I must make sure I use lots of repetition – Anticipated problems and solutions

f. To get students interested in the topic of listening text – Stage aim

Task 44: What can each of these resources be used for?

  1. Published course book – developing students’ language and skills in a structured way and allowing them to review at home. 
  2. Cassette or CD player – Developing students’ listening skills with specially prepared or real materials. 
  3. Newspapers in English – Developing students’ abilities to read real texts.
  4. Internet – Finding information on a particular topic area and developing reading skills. 
  5. Overhead Projector (OHP) – Showing pre-prepared work on a large screen for clarity.
  6. Whiteboard – Writing down new words for students to focus on, making the form, meaning or pronunciation features of a language area clear. 
  7. TV/Radio – Developing students’ ability to listen to authentic speech. 
  8. Teacher’s own material – Giving students work which can be tailored to their individual needs. 
  9. Dictionaries – Encouraging students to expand their vocabulary and find out about new words on their own. 

CELTA – Precourse – Section 3D, Tasks 40, 41 and 42


Task 40: 

Which do you associate with spoken language (S) and which with written language (W)?

  1. Gestures and facial expressions – S
  2. Punctuation – W
  3. ‘yeah’, ‘um’ and ‘ah’ – S
  4. Immediate feedback – S
  5. Usually pre-prepared – W
  6. Uses pauses, stress and intonation – S
  7. Is spontaneous – S
  8. Meaning is static but open to interpretation – W
  9. Communicator may not know what the recipient thinks of the communication – W
  10. Headlines, fonts, type sizes, colours – W
  11. Smooth-flowing – S
  12. Negotiation of meaning between two parties – S


Task 41: Look at the learner errors in the sentences below. Identify the mistake and try to decide why the learner made these mistakes. 

  1. She through the ball hard so it hurt when I court it. – This person knows how to speak the language, but not how to spell. 
  2. My brther livs in Swedn – This person was texting before the iPhone was invented. 
  3. However, hard I try it never works – Doesn’t know how to use the correct punctuation. 
  4. first of all he invited me to sit down after that he offered me a coffee I was very surprised by his politeness – First language is probably one that doesn’t use punctuation or capital letters.


Task 42: 

1. Look at the samples of learners’ writing below and identify the difficulties encountered by these learners ad other learners whose first language do not have a Roman script. 

A has no flow, is written in lines instead of paragraph form. B has inconsistent use of capital letters.

2. Suggest some activities that teachers can use to help students to develop basic writing skills. 

Write a story using the vocabulary you are currently trying to learn.

Explain the plot of your favorite movie/book

Describe the life of someone you know (your mum, brother, etc)


CELTA – Precourse – Section 3C, Tasks 36, 37, 38 and 39


Task 36: Think about this disparity between 2 years’ study of a language and a lack of ability to speak. Why do you think this happens?

Production is very different to understanding and reception. If the student is never required to produce the language, they will always be thinking in their native language, then translating it to the required language.

Task 37: Look at the following examples of learner language and decide whether the student has managed to communicate successfully of not. 

  1. Could I please have a ….? (learner gesticulates, indicating he is unsure of the word) since this is how many people communicate, even native speakers, it depends on the situation on whether this is successful communication. 
  2. You come to my house tonight? (said with rising intonation) Yes, the intent/meaning is understood. 
  3. Yesterday good time. Next week we see, no? (learner smiles) Depends on the context. If you’re talking about a weekly event, like a weekly soccer game, then the meaning is clear. 
  4. A: How long have you been in New Zealand? B: I stay here 5 weeks. Not clear. Have you been here for 5 weeks, or will you be here for 5 weeks in total. 

Task 38: Decide if the following descriptions of conversations are transactional or interactional.

1. You ask a colleague if s/he would mind helping you with something. Transactional

2. You offer to collect your neighbour’s mail while s/he is away on holiday. Transactional

3. You comment on the weather to an acquaintance at a bus stop. Interactional

4. You visit a friend and spend time admiring and talking about the garden. Interactional

5. You participate in a university group tutorial that is very useful for an essay you are writing. Transactional

6. You go out with your boss and other colleagues for a drink and a chat after work. Interactional

Task 39: Make a list of reasons why you think speaking fluency practice could help learners’ language development.

  • It builds confidence with speaking.
  • It shows students that their grammar doesn’t need to be perfect for them to be understood or to understand.
  • They’ll hear what mistakes other students make and hopefully make a mental note to avoid them.
  • This can be a ‘fun’ activity, which helps students enjoy learning the language.

CELTA – Precourse – Section 3B, Tasks 33, 34 and 35


Task 33: Make a list of reasons why you think non-native speakers might find listening more challenging than reading. 

Listening usually goes at a much more rapid speed than reading, especially for non-native speakers. With reading, people can go according to their level of understanding, as well as re-read and take time to comprehend a sentence.

Task 34: Think of three different situations in which you listened today. Make a note of who you were listening to, your motivation for listening and describe how you listened. 

  1. Nuremberg Nazi Museum Audio guides: Listening for information – intensive.
  2. CELTA interview: Listening for information – intensive.
  3. German radio: Listening for pleasure – skim/gist listening.

Task 35: Match the above sub-skills to the following listening texts.

  1. A lecture for a course you are taking at university. – Intensive listening
  2. A sales pitch for a computer that doesn’t really interest you. However you are at work and you can’t just walk out. – Skim/gist listening.
  3. Announcements at a train station when you are waiting to hear the time of the next train to your destination. – Scan listening.
  4. Instructions from your boss for a new task that is critical for your job. – Intensive listening.
  5. An interview with someone who is famous and whose political opinion you would like to find out about. – Listening to infer meaning.
  6. A radio programme on a topic that is mildly interesting for you. – Skim/gist listening.

CELTA – Precourse – Section 3A, Tasks 30, 31 and 32


Task 30: Think of all the texts you’ve read today and comment on the way in which you have read these texts. 

Text message: scan fast for meaning. Correction for punctuation and grammatical errors.

Tram journey on Google Maps: scan reading multiple times.

News article: skim/gist reading for information.

CELTA precourse: Intensive/detailed reading.

Task 31: Below are some different text types. Think about which of the above reading sub-skills we would use to read these texts:

An academic article we need to read for an essay we are writing – Intensive/detailed reading

A telephone directory – scan reading

The editorial of a newspaper on a topic we care about a lot – reading to infer

An advertisement for a job that might be suitable – skim/gist reading, then detailed if it turns out to be promising

Task 32: When people read in a language that is not their first language, they often forget to use appropriate language skills and will read all texts in a great deal of detail. They are also likely to over-use bi-lingual dictionaries, pausing in their reading every time they find a word they do not understand. What problems are there with this way of reading?

Not all texts need this level of detail, and could actually be understood by just scanning for the required information and using the context to make sense of the information.


CELTA – Precourse – Section 2B, Tasks 21, 22 and 23


Task 21: Make a list of what extra information dictionaries can provide about words apart from the meaning. It would be a good idea to refer to a dictionary to help you. 

Dictionaries can include meaning, usage, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciation and translation. – Wikipedia

Task 21: In the following sentences, there is a vocabulary error of some kind. Identify and describe the problem.

  1. He’s the highest person in the family by more than 2 centimeters. – Tall refers to the height of something, and high refers to the elevation from the ground. Tallest is the correct word here, especially as we are talking about people (buildings can use high). 
  2. I think I’ll go to bed now. I’m feeling a little enervated. – enervated is a synonym to weakened, so I guess you could say ‘I feel enervated’.
  3. It is an extremely good essay. The ideas in it are original and pretentious. – In most cases, people see pretentious as a negative characteristic, and it doesn’t fit with the former praise. 
  4. Her grandfather gave her a loving slap on her face. – in most cases, you don’t slap someone lovingly on the face (he may give a loving slap on her arm, or a loving caress on her face). 
  5. Every day I like to go footing after work. It’s good exercise and it helps me to relax. – footing by itself is not a word we use when we talk about walking (hot-footing however is), so it’s better to use walking or running.

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CELTA – Precourse – Section 2A, Tasks 19 and 20


Task 19: Look at the following mini-dialogues below and decide the time reference or use of the underlined examples of the present progressive.

A: How about going to a movie this evening?

B: I can’t. I’m meeting Judy for a drink. – future


A: Where’s Tony?

B: I don’t know where he’s got to.

A: He’s always running late. – complaining


A: It was late at night and dark and I was on myway back to the hotel. Suddenly, I find I’m walking down the street all on my own and I can hear the sound of footsteps… – Past

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