Task 40: 

Which do you associate with spoken language (S) and which with written language (W)?

  1. Gestures and facial expressions – S
  2. Punctuation – W
  3. ‘yeah’, ‘um’ and ‘ah’ – S
  4. Immediate feedback – S
  5. Usually pre-prepared – W
  6. Uses pauses, stress and intonation – S
  7. Is spontaneous – S
  8. Meaning is static but open to interpretation – W
  9. Communicator may not know what the recipient thinks of the communication – W
  10. Headlines, fonts, type sizes, colours – W
  11. Smooth-flowing – S
  12. Negotiation of meaning between two parties – S


Task 41: Look at the learner errors in the sentences below. Identify the mistake and try to decide why the learner made these mistakes. 

  1. She through the ball hard so it hurt when I court it. – This person knows how to speak the language, but not how to spell. 
  2. My brther livs in Swedn – This person was texting before the iPhone was invented. 
  3. However, hard I try it never works – Doesn’t know how to use the correct punctuation. 
  4. first of all he invited me to sit down after that he offered me a coffee I was very surprised by his politeness – First language is probably one that doesn’t use punctuation or capital letters.


Task 42: 

1. Look at the samples of learners’ writing below and identify the difficulties encountered by these learners ad other learners whose first language do not have a Roman script. 

A has no flow, is written in lines instead of paragraph form. B has inconsistent use of capital letters.

2. Suggest some activities that teachers can use to help students to develop basic writing skills. 

Write a story using the vocabulary you are currently trying to learn.

Explain the plot of your favorite movie/book

Describe the life of someone you know (your mum, brother, etc)